Ancient books of China

How the book grew in China

Book in China

In ancient China, the record was made by a cutter on the bones, hollowed on the stones, cast and minted on bronze. And on the tree, bamboo, silk and paper wrote a brush. A typography in the country arose at the end of the board of the Eastern Han dynasty (25-220 years). The first printed books were obtained using carved wooden boards. So it lasted about seven centuries. The most ancient in the world from the printed book discovered today is "Sutra Prajna" (diamond sacred book). She was found in Dunhan caves. This scroll glued out of seven sheets of paper, more than five meters long with 30 centimeters width. Specialists celebrate excellent quality paper and carcasses.

There are in the book and the name of the printer: "The book is printed by Wang Jie, honoring his parents, the 15th, 4 months, 9 years of the board of the Tansky Emperor Izzung, who reigned under the motto Syantun" (668). The idea of ​​this book gives an illustration of its title leaf. The printing breakdown period from carved boards was Epoch Song (960-1279 years). The books of this period differ not only for high quality paper and carcass, but also calligraphic execution.

And during the reign of the dynasty of the Yuan (1279-1366), an innovation appeared in a typography - the seal became color. The earliest of color books is "Comments to" Prajna Sutra "." She was printed in two colors: black and red. For the next dynasty - Min (1366-1644) - the books began to be printed already in five colors.

High seal appears. The presence of a large number of books in the country, of course, contributed to the dissemination of knowledge. But the books with the cliché were expensive. After all, carved boards were suitable for edition of the circulation of only one book.

During the Board of the Sun Emperor, Zhen-Tun (1041-1046) invented separate listers were invented, which made it possible to recruit text. The first listers were clay, later - tin and wooden, and copper and lead appear in the era of mines. It is curious that the next era - Qing (1644-1911) - used even magnetic literals. At the same time, books in the languages ​​of national minorities appear.

Author: Pavel Chaika, editor-in-chief of the historical site travel in time

When writing the article tried to make it the most interesting, useful and high-quality. I would be grateful for any feedback and constructive criticism in the form of comments on the article. Also your wish / question / offer can write to my mail [email protected] or in Facebook, with respect, author.

The Chinese book differs from European, says Olga Izhbulatova - the chief librarian of the center of eastern literature Leninka.

Books up to the invention of paper

Ancient monuments of Chinese letters - inscriptions on gadetting bones Epochs Shan-Yin (15 - 11th century BC). Written texts of the era of Zhou (11th century - 256 BC) are predominantly presented inscriptions on bronze vessels . The oldest Chinese books were written on Wooden Planca (up to 5 - 6 centuries BC). As letter material also used silk fabric .

According to legend, paper It was invented in 105. However, archaeological finds refute this date: there are samples of significantly earlier paper. By the beginning of the 4th century, the paper replaced wooden planks in China.

The properties of Chinese paper identified the features of the traditional Chinese book.

Chinese paper is usually mild and translucent, so the text (handwritten or printed) is located only on one side of the sheet. This can be seen in the books - "Butterflies" and books in the form of wrapping binding.

The traditional forms of the Chinese book (as well as Chinese writing) spread to Japan, Korea and Vietnam.

Forms of book

Scroll

In the period from 5 to 10th century, books were created in the form of scrolls on the folod and on paper.

Scroll
Scroll

In addition to a scroll made of one tape wrapped around the rod, it is known about the existence of another type of scroll. We are talking about the so-called vortex brochure. It is believed that she was a scroll of several sheets put on each other of the same height and a different length, of which the most top was the shortest. A total of several books have been preserved (they were found in the Dunhuang Monastery), which, presumably, had the shape of a vortex binding.

The direction of the letter is from top to bottom, right left - it was characteristic of the Chinese book from the moment of its occurrence. It changed to European only at the beginning of the 20th century, when the Chinese typography began to give in to the strongest Western influence. Nevertheless, the traditional direction of the letter is still widely used in Taiwan. In the books published today in continental China, sometimes you can sometimes see the text printed in the column.

Floy

At the beginning of the first Millennium, Buddhism began to penetrate into China. Thanks to Buddhism, the Chinese met the Indian Book on Palm Leaves - Fun. The Chinese borrowed this form. Fight book is a stop of a rectangular paper sheets, which can be embedded between two boards and is connected with a cord.

Fun. Photo of Maria Govvela, RGB
Fun. Photo of Maria Govvela, RGB

Harmonic

In the era of Tan (618-907), the form of the book "Harmonic" appeared. Several sheets glued in the tape, folding, then the upper and lower covers are glued to them. Subsequently, the scope of the "harmonics" was significantly narrowed, but Buddhist texts continued to be published in this form.

Harmonic. Photo of Maria Govvela, RGB
Harmonic. Photo of Maria Govvela, RGB
Harmonic. Diamond sutra
Harmonic. Photo of Maria Govvela, RGB

"Butterfly"

In the period of five dynasties (907-960 years) and in the Song Epoch (960-1279) in China, the book "Butterfly" was invented and received widespread. This type of brochure got its name for the similarity with a real living butterfly: two pages located symmetrically relative to the vertical footer between them, remind the wings. Sheets bend the front side inside and fold into the stack (separately, not notebooks). Then each sheet is glued along the fold to the next and the cover is glued to the block. The characteristic features of the "Butterfly" - the presence of the wrong side and the placement of footer in the middle of the sheet. "Butterfly" leaf on the right left, like all other Chinese books of traditional form.

It is believed that the book "Butterfly" had some weaknesses: first, it was inconvenient to flip, because each second reversal was "involving"; Secondly, she could reveal. The use of glue is also considered a disadvantage, because it makes a book more susceptible to insect damage.

Butterfly book
Butterfly book

The advantage of the "butterfly" is that each turn is a whole sheet, which is especially convenient for books with illustrations. In 1627, an outstanding engraver Hu Zhengyan issued his masterpiece "Samples of calligraphy and painting from the workshop" Ten Bamboo "" precisely in the form of a "butterfly", although this type of binding by that time has long become archaic, giving way to the wrapping brochure.

Wrapper and firmware

During the reign of the Dynasty, the South Sun (1127-1279) appeared, and in the era of Yuan (1271-1368) reached a flourish stitching.

The book in the form of an wrapping binding consists of the same sheets as "butterfly", but they are folded differently - the text outward. The block is a stack of separate folded twice. From above and from below, one or more empty sheets can be added, which perform a protective function, similarly to the muddle and nahn in the western binding. Holes are done along the root, and the sheets are connected using paper harnesses. After that, the cover is pasted.

In the era of Min (1368 - 1644) there was a firmware stitching. She remained the main form of a book in the Far East until the beginning of the 20th century.

The characteristic features of the firmware brochure are visible outside the sewing and edge on the spot corresponding to the root of the European Code. The Chinese book, as a rule, has four holes, sometimes (especially if the format is quite large) in the corners there are two more holes. Korean and Japanese books often have five holes.

The book in the form of a firmware brochure looks like this. Photo Olga Izhbulatova
The book in the form of a firmware brochure looks like this. Photo Olga Izhbulatova
Book in the form of a firmware
The book in the form of a firmware brochure looks like this. Photo Olga Izhbulatova

Case

The traditional Chinese book does not have solid binding. (The exceptions are "harmonics" and an album that can have solid, even wooden, covers, as well as some early samples of wrapping, where cardboard was sometimes used). Books are imprisoned and placed in the case. The cover can be made of a single or folded twice sheet of paper, of two glued sheets of paper or from tissue pasted on paper. The case is made from cardboard and cover it from the outside with a cloth, and with internal - paper. For particularly valuable, exquisite editions manufactured wood case cases.

"The word about painting from the garden with mustard grain" - a book-album in the case. Photo of Maria Govvela, RGB
"The word about painting from the garden with mustard grain" - a book-album in the case. Photo of Maria Govvela, RGB

Chinese books are traditionally stored in a horizontal position.

Consider Chinese books in the center of Eastern literature Leninka. It is located on Mokhovaya Street, 6-8, and can be recorded in the library anyone who turned 14 years old.

"Linen Book" or "Book of Zagreb Mummy", Liber Agramensis, - a ritual book in Etruscan, written in a linen canvase, presumably 250 years BC. e. . The mummy of a young woman was wrapped in it.

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

Clay books from the Assyrian library. VII century BC. Era.

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

https: //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/64/li ...

Stone Chinese book Shizhin "Book of Songs". It has 305 folk songs and poems of various genres created in the XI-VI centuries. BC e.

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

https: //imgprx.livejournal.net/5c96192d87141213318f0e7d24444 ...

Egyptian papyrus book. They were very long and turned into a scroll

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

The lead codes of Jordan (sometimes called Jordanian Codes or Lead Books) - a set of codes found in the cave in Jordan and. The congregation of codes is about seventy units, each from five to 15 lead sheets (one size of the passport, others with a credit card). Sheets with each other are fastened with lead rings. Pictures and letters are paid on lead pages. Scripture Made on three languages: Aramaic, Hebrew and Ancient Greek.

According to the initial research of the metal, the artifact can be dated i c. n. e. And, as a result, is the most ancient relic of Christianity. Physics from the University of Surrey (United Kingdom) confirmed the authenticity of the famous lead code, which refers to the name of Jesus

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

Book in Dravidian, one of the oldest surviving classic languages. The book is written on palm leaves. Age of about 2000 years. Wrote with reed chopsticks. Ink was made of soot and sugar cane juice.

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long
What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

A 36-meter scroll of soft sheep leather was found in 2013 in the University Library of Bologna in Italy. The scroll consists of handwritten text, this is the pentateuch of Moses. The real date of creation of the manuscript has not been established for a long time, although in 1889 they counted that this is the XVII century. And only in 2013, the University teacher Mauro Perants found the difference in writing style characteristic of ancient Babylon. Thus, the book should be older than the XVII century. In the end, a radiocarbon analysis was conducted, which showed that the Book of Torah was created more than 850 years ago and refers to very ancient.

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long
What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

Book-Cera. Nanzgorodskaya Psaltry. The first wax page is mounted on a copy of the sash. And the first wooden sash. Start of the 11th century

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

DevimiMahatma Nepal .11 century

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

https: //i0.wp.com/media.paperblog.fr/i/535/5353702/livres-fo ...

Nature book. Correct me to designate it as an object and data storage and data system.

These are mathematical recordings of the Inca, which is called kip. The most ancient Kipu dates back to 3000 a year BC. er, and the first written mention of the Kipu belongs to 1533 (this account system described the Spanish Conquistor Hernando Pisarro in his letter).

https: //elementy.ru/images/kartinka_dnya/picture_of_the_day _...

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

The belt book was called, because it was worn on the belt. A piece of skin served as a continuation of the book and stung up for a belt or a man's belt. And the book hung down his head, so it was possible to read it without removing the belt. Such books were popular in 15-16 centuries in Germany and the Netherlands

Listful book15 century

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

https: //mediakron.bc.edu/files/alliteRativePoetry/styles/ful ...

Medieval folding almanac in Latin. 5 inches per 1 ½ inches. Contains calendar and astrological tables and diagrams, including lunar and solar eclipses. There are seven sheets in it, each of which is three times.

Almanachi, such as this suspended to the belt to provide portable astrological calendar cards and computing of astrolories.

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long
What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

Round book. Germany. About 1590g. A gift for Prince-Bishop Julius Echter Von Mespelbrunn.

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

https: //imgprx.livejournal.net/5cdc670fc14df59947b7bdb448161 ...

https: //imgprx.livejournal.net/33fcdd8153a8735c25e9fe9fc7b1 ...

In the 17th century, the books weighed much more than now. Children's alphabet was a leaf attached to the frame on the leg. Thus, the child could pinch the area between the legs and raise the alphabet to the desired distance in front of the eyes.

Children's ABC 17th century

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

When libraries began to appear in Europe, the books, due to their high cost, were caught with chains. In medieval libraries, racks were equipped with special rings for chains that were long enough to work with a book, but at the same time it was impossible to smoke

What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long
What a book looked before. Books, vintage books, story of things, long

Photos and information are taken from the network.

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