Concept and properties
Ethylene glycol (MEG, monoethylene glycol) - chemical reagent, which It is a representative of a group of polyhydric alcohols, has the form of a syrup-shaped fluid with a sharp smell and a slightly sweet taste. The substance is well soluble in ketones, water, acetone, alcohol, turpentar, moderately in diethyl ether, Toluene and benzene. Vegetable oils and animal fats are poorly soluble, absolutely not soluble paraffin, rubber, mineral oils. When the water interacts with water, heat is distinguished, while the volume of ethylene glycol decreases.
Ethylene glycol has the ability to not freeze even with especially low temperature Indicators, while reduce the temperature of the freezing of substances, which it includes. Therefore, with it, it is possible to obtain solutions, the freezing of which does not occur even at -70 ° C.
The properties of ethylene glycol include the properties of glycols. So, with such chimreactics, as organic acids, forms esters, alkali and alkaline metals - glycolates. When oxidizing ethylene glycol, the formation of mixtures of glycolic aldehyde and oxalic acid is possible to buy which at an affordable price offers our online store, and when the molecular oxygen is oxidized, a mixture of formic acid.
This chemical compound is produced in two brands: antifreeze and fiber, the latter makes very serious requirements for the quantitative content of the aldehydes.
Opening of ethylene glycol
This chemical reagent was first obtained by Chemist Wuzza in France in the middle of the XIX century. Before the beginning of the First World War, he did not have widespread use, later in Germany during hostilities began to be used as a glycerol substitute in the process of producing explosives. By 1930, ethylene glycol began to be actively used by many well-known dynamite manufacturers.
Ethylene glycol - poison!
Toxic and poisonous actions of ethylene glycol depend on a number of factors, among which should be allocated: - quantity; - Individual sensitivity of the body; - the state of the nervous system; - The degree of filling the stomach and others.
Doses that can lead in the body to irreversible changes and cause ethylene glycol fatal poisoning can vary from 100 to 700 ml. According to a number of studies for a person, a lethal dose is 50-200 ml. With the defeat of ethylene glycol, mortality is very high and amounts to about 60% of all cases of poisoning.
The applications of this chemical reagent are very diverse. Due to its low cost, ethylene glycol is primarily applied in such industries: - in machine-building (in the production of antifreeze, brake fluids, antifreeze); - in textile (as a solvent of coloring substances); - energy (as a heat carrier in heating systems); - in the chemical (in the production of polymers: cellophane, polyurethane, during the synthesis of high-temperature solvents, to prevent the process of formation of methane hydrate); - electrotechnical (as a substance that protects objects from freezing in the production of capacitors, as a component component in the system of liquid cooling of computers); - in the military (as the initial raw material in the production of nitroglycol - an explosive substance).
Security measures, storage
Store ethylene glycol is necessary in the laboratory glassware made of steel, resistant to corrosion, in closed unheated premises.
Due to the fact that ethylene glycol is poisonous, it is important to prevent it from entering the body, since this toxic substance entails irreversible changes in the operation of the internal organs and can lead to a fatal outcome.
Ethylene glycol in accordance with the classification of chemical exercises is counted for the third hazard class: it is explosive and fuel, so when working with it, special security measures should be followed using protective equipment for respiratory organs - gas masks, respirators, masks; For organs of vision - safety glasses; For skin - nitrol gloves, apron, shoe covers and other rubber products. Laboratory equipment and devices should be used according to the requirements of safety instructions when working with poisonous substances.
It is necessary to know that in the case of Meg poisoning, the first preference must be carried out urgently. This is, above all, washing the stomach plus laxatives, calling vomiting, medical - appointment of antidote.
Quality chemical reagents at an affordable price
To the choice of the acquisition of chemical reagents, as well as any other laboratory equipment in Moscow, should be dealt with special responsibility, since the results of research processes depend on the quality of this product. Like calcium chloride to buy or buy milk and ethylene glycol stands in specialized stores, where the requirements for the storage and vacation of goods are observed. One of these is a chemical reagent store Moscow Retail and Wholesale Prime Chemicals Group. We only specialize in selling only certified laboratory equipment and chemical exercises.
"Prichemcemikalsgroup" - a reliable assistant in equipping your laboratory!
Ethylene glycol (alternative names - Dioxetan, etandiol, monoethylene glycol) - a representative of ductomic alcohols. Chemical formula of substance - C2H6O2. Externally, this is a colorless transparent smell liquid. According to the generally accepted international classification, attributed to the third class of danger. Eating inside 100 ml of ethylene glycol is mortally for humans. Couples of dioxethane are toxic, falling in pure form or in aqueous solution is dangerous to health and life.
Physical properties of ethylene glycol
- Molar mass - 62 grams / mole;
- The flavacy temperature depends on the concentration: 112-124 degrees;
- Optical refraction coefficient - 1.4318;
- Self-ignition temperature - 380 degrees;
- The freezing temperature of pure glycol - minus 22 degrees;
- Boiling point - 197.3 degrees;
- Density - 1.111 grams per cubic centimeter.
The physical and thermophysical properties of the substance depend on the concentration in the solution. Highly concentrated glycol withstands the heating to a high temperature, so it is suitable for coolants of engineering systems. Low crystallization temperature (reaches the lower limits of 65 degrees below zero at about 40% in solution) allows you to use dioxetan as a raw material for antifreeze cooling systems.
History and modern production
Ethylene glycol for the first time synthesized the French Chemist Würz in the middle of the XIX century. The raw material for obtaining glycol was first diacetate, and then ethylene oxide. Initially, the synthesized substance did not receive practical application. After 50 years, ethylene glycol was actively used in the production of explosives. The low cost of production, high density suitable physical characteristics allowed to displace glycerin that served for the manufacture of explosives.
On an industrial scale, the ductomic alcohol began to produce in the past 20s last century in the United States. American experts designed and built a plant in Western Virginia and set up mass production of glycol. For many years, almost all major companies specializing in the manufacture of dynamics have been purchased.
Today, ethylene glycol on an industrial scale is synthesized during ethylene hydration in two ways:
- Using low-concentrated sulfur or orthophosphoric acids at a pressure of 1 atmosphere and a temperature of 50-100 degrees;
- Under pressure in 10 atmospheres and temperatures of 200 degrees.
The output is a mixture, containing up to 90 percent of pure highly concentrated ethylene glycol. Side Products Reaction - Polymergomologists and Triethylene Glycol, have been widely used in industry. Air cooling systems, production of plasticizers and disinfection preparations are the most popular areas of use.
Application of ethylene glycol in industry
- Organic synthesis reactions. Glycol has a high chemical activity, therefore, it is used as a solvent, the means of protecting isopore and carbonyl groups. Alcohol does not boil at high temperatures, it is suitable for a special aviation fluid. The resulting product reduces the flood of combustible mixtures and increases the efficiency of fuel for aircraft and helicopters.
- Solvent for coloring compounds.
- Production of explosive - nitroglycol (cheaper and affordable nitroglycerin analog).
- Gas producing industry. Ethylene glycol eliminates the formation of methane hydrate on pipes and absorbs excessive moisture.
- Cryopold. The substance is actively used in the production of liquids for cooling computer and digital equipment, the manufacture of capacitors and obtaining 1,4-dioxin.
Ethylene glycol-based cooling fluids
Double-spectacular alcohol is used in the manufacture of antifreeze for engine cooling systems, coolants of engineering systems of heating and air conditioning. A solution with demineralized water and a package of anti-corrosion additives has anticavitational and antiphen properties.
The advantage of ethylene glycol is the low crystallization temperature in comparison with water. Even when the glycol freezing point is reached, the glycol has a lower temperature expansion coefficient in comparison with water (1.5-3% less). High boiling point allows the use of a water-glycolic mixture in extreme production conditions, when heating oil and gas and other technological processes.
Additional advantages of ethylene glycol antifreezes:
- A variety of concentration selection for various operating conditions;
- Stable operating parameters and thermophysical properties over a long period;
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Ethylene glycol (1,2-etanodiol, 1,2-dioxetan, glycol) is a base substance for the manufacture of various antifreeze, which are used in the cooling systems of vehicles engines.
Ethylene glycol - toxic dioxide alcohol
The chemical formula of this simplest polyatomic alcohol is C2H6O2 (otherwise it can be written as follows - but-CH2-CH2-it). Ethylene glycol has a slightly sweet taste, does not smell, in purified state looks like a little oily colorless transparent liquid.
Since it is ranked to toxic compounds (according to the generally accepted classification - the third class of danger), it should be avoided by this substance (in solutions and in its pure form) into the human body. The main chemical and physical properties of 1,2-dioxethane:
- molar weight - 62,068 g / mol;
- Optical refraction coefficient - 1.4318;
- ignition temperature - 124 degrees (upper limit) and 112 degrees (lower limit);
- self-ignition temperature - 380 ° C;
- freezing temperature (100% glycol) - 22 ° C;
- Boiling point - 197.3 ° C;
- Density - 11,113 g / cubic centimeter.
The pair of the described ductoma alcohol flashes at the moment when its temperature reaches 120 degrees. Recall once again that 1,2-Ethadiool has the 3rd class of danger. And this means that its maximum permissible concentrations in the atmosphere can be no more than 5 milligrams / cubic meter. If ethylene glycol enters the human body, irreversible negative phenomena that can lead to death can develop. With one-time consumption, 100 and more milliliters of glycol comes a fatal outcome.
Couples of this connection are less toxic. Since ethylene glycol is characterized by a relatively small frequency indicator, the real danger for a person occurs when it systematically inhales the pair of 1,2-ethadiola. The fact that there is a possibility of poisoning with pairs (or fogs) of the compound under consideration, signals the cough and irritation of the mucous membrane. If a person is poisoned by Glycol, he should take a drug containing 4-methylpirazole (powerful antidote, an overwhelming alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme), or ethanol (single oriental ethyl alcohol).
The use of glycol in different fields of technology
The small cost of this polyhydric alcohol, its special chemical and physical properties (density and other) led to the fact that it is used very widely in various technical spheres.
Any motorist knows what is a conventional coolant for its "iron horse" called antifreeze - ethylene glycol 60% + water 40%. Such a mixture is characterized by a freezing temperature of -45 degrees, it is very difficult to find a more suitable liquid for automotive cooling systems, despite even on a high class of hazard of 1,2-ethadiola.
In the automotive industry, ethylene glycol finds use and as an excellent coolant. In addition, it is used in the following areas:
- Organic Synthesis: The chemical properties of glycol make it possible to protect emotion and other carbonyl groups with it, use alcohol in the form of an effective solvent operating at elevated temperatures, as well as the main component of a special aviation fluid, which reduces the phenomenon of flammable mixtures for aircraft;
- dissolving coloring compounds;
- Production of nitroglycol - a powerful explosive based on the compound described by us;
- The gas producing industry: glycol does not allow forging methane hydrate on pipes, in addition, it absorbs excessive moisture on pipelines.
I found ethylene glycol application and as an effective cryoprotector. It is used to produce creams for shoes, as an important element of liquids for cooling computer equipment, in the manufacture of 1,4-dioxin and different types of capacitors.
Some glycol production nuances
In the late 1850s, Chemist from France Würz received ethylene glycol from his diacetate, and a little later by hydration ethylene oxide. But at that time practical application, the new substance did not find anywhere. Only in the 1910s began to be used in the manufacture of explosive compounds. The density of glycol, its other physical properties and low cost of production caused the fact that they were replaced by glycerin, which was used before.
The special properties of 1,2-etnaidiol appreciated the Americans. They were established in the mid-1920s, its industrial production on a specially built and equipped plant in West Virginia. In subsequent years, the glycol used almost all the companies known at the time of the production of dynamite. Currently, the compound of interest to us, which has a third hazard class, is manufactured using ethylene oxide hydration technology. There are two options for its production:
- with the participation of orthophosphorus or sulfuric acid (up to 0.5 percent) at a temperature of from 50 to 100 ° C and a pressure of one atmosphere;
- At a temperature of about 200 ° C and a pressure of ten atmospheres.
As a result of the hydration reaction, up to 90 percent of pure 1,2-dioxethane, a certain number of polymeromologists and triethylene glycol are formed. The second compound is added to the hydraulic and brake fluids, it is used in industrial air cooling systems, it makes preparations for disinfection, as well as plasticizers.
The most important requirements of GOST 19710 to the finished Glycol
Since 1984, GOST 19710 has been operating, which establishes the requirements for which properties (freezing, density, and so on) must have ethylene glycol used at automotive enterprises and in other sectors of the national economy, where it is based on a variety of compounds.
According to GOST 19710 glycol (as a liquid) can be of two types: the first grade and the highest grade. The share (mass) of water in the glycol of the first grade should be up to 0.5%, higher - to 0.1%, iron - to 0.00005 and 0.00001%, acids (in terms of acetic acid) - to 0.005 and 0 , 0006%. The residue after the calcination of the finished product can not be more than 0.002 and 0.001%.
The color of 1,2-dioxethane according to GOST 19710 (on the Hazen scale):
- After boiling in a solution of acid (salt) - 20 units for the highest grade production (the first grade is not normalized by color);
- In standard condition - 5 (higher grade) and 20 units (first grade).
In the State Standard 19710, special requirements for the production process of the described simple alcohol are nominated:
- used exclusively hermetic equipment and equipment;
- Production premises necessarily equipped with ventilation recommended for working with compounds that the third hazard class is assigned;
- If the glycol is hit on equipment or land, it should be immediately rich in water jet;
- The staff working in the production of 1,2-etnaciol is provided by the gas mask of the BKF model or other adaptation to protect the respiratory organs corresponding to GOST 12.4.034;
- Glycol's ignition is extinguished with inert gases, special foam compositions, as well as fine water.
Finished products according to GOST 19710 are checked by various methods. For example, the mass portion of dyankomic alcohol and diethylene glycol is established by the method of isothermal gas chromatography using the so-called "internal standal" technology. In this case, scales for laboratory studies are used (GOST 24104), glass or steel gas chromatographic column and chromatograph with ionization type detector, measuring ruler, microfits, magnifier magnifier (GOST 25706), evaporation cup and other tool.
The glycol color is set according to Standard 29131 with the help of a stopwatch, a special cylinder, a conical flask, hydrochloric acid, a refrigeration unit. The mass part of the iron is established under Gosstandart 10555 according to the sulfacyl photometry method, the residue after calcination - according to Gosstandart 27184 (by evaporation of the resulting compound in platinum or quartz capacity). But the mass part of the water is determined by electometric or visual titration using Fisher's reagent in the burests with a capacity of 10 or 3 cubic centimeters.
Antifreeze - Glycol-based cooling fluid
Antifreeze based on the simplest multi-volume alcohol is used in modern vehicles in order to cool their engine. Its main component is ethylene glycol (there are compositions with propylene glycol as the main component). Supplements serves distilled water and special additives that give antifrase fluorescent, anti-vital, anti-corrosion, antipine properties.
The main characteristic of antifreeze is a small freezing temperature. In addition, they have a low expansion rate during freezing (compared to conventional water by 1.5-3 percent less). In this case, such a special coolant based on glycol is characterized by a high boiling point, which improves the process of operation of the vehicle in the hot season.
In general, the liquid for cooling automotors based on glycol and water has the following advantages:
- the absence of harmful additives (amines, a variety of nitrites, adversely affecting the nature of phosphates);
- the ability to choose the necessary antifreeze concentration for high-quality car engine prevention from freezing;
- stable parameters and properties during the entire service life;
- Compatibility with the details of the cooling system of cars, which are made of plastic or rubber;
- High antipine indicators.
Among other things, modern antifreezes provide anti-corrosion protection of metal alloys and metals existing in the internal combustion engine due to the presence of special inhibitory additives.Rate article:
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One of the typical representatives of alcohols is ethylene glycol. This liquid is part of many chemicals including car care and premises. But since ethylene glycol is directly related to alcohols - it is periodically trying to drink as a substitute for alcohol. Do not everyone know that this particular representative has the most pronounced poisoning qualities.
What is ethylene glycol, what is his formula and physical properties? How do they get and used? What is dangerous for the human body this alcohol? In what cases is the poisoning of them and what kind of symptoms are worried about this? How to act to help the victim?
What is ethylene glycol
Ethylene glycol is a representative of alcohols with two methyl groups in its composition. But unlike others, it has a slightly oily consistency.
Despite the fact that ethylene glycol was obtained back in 1859, he did not immediately occupy his niche in chemistry and industry. Initially, it was used during the First World War, as the replacement of glycerol, which was widely used in the production of explosives.
Ethylene glycol chemical formula - C 2H6O2, rational - S. 2Н4(IS HE) 2. According to its physical properties, this is a liquid odorless, but with a sweet taste. It is easily connected with water in any consistency, which is successfully applied in industry, because the freezing temperature of such liquids is very low - it improves the properties of "non-freezes".
Ethylene glycol has several names that can often be found in the composition of chemical production products:
More often than others consumed the main name.
What class of danger is ethylene glycol? - To a moderately toxic flammable substance.
Methods for getting
The production of ethylene glycol on an industrial scale was engaged in the thirties of the last century. One way to get it then was the oxidation of ethylene to its oxide. About 20 years, this method remained the only one.
A little later, ethylene glycol began to obtain with the saturation of ethylene oxide with water, in the presence of sulfur and orthophosphoric acids. This method was more profitable for the previous one, since more than 90% of ethylene glycol with a minimum amount of impurities were produced at the exit.
Mainly ethylene glycol is used in industry for processing technology, which is due to its value - it is an inexpensive and accessible product.
It is produced in the chemical industry for car care:
- More than 50% of the substance goes to the creation of brake fluids and antifreeze, since the mixture of glycol and water is capable of maintaining a liquid consistency even at 40º C below zero;
- Ethylene glycol is part of the coolant - toosol;
- It can eliminate corrosion, so glycol is added to anti-corrosion chemical compounds.
Where else is ethylene glycol?
- It can be found as part of antistatic.
- Used for the production of means of protection against icing.
- Serves as lubrication in refrigeration.
- The use of ethylene glycol as a filler in hydraulic systems.
- Glycol is often used for disinfection of large rooms.
- One of the key applications of the substance is the production of household chemical products, which includes cellophane, polyurethane.
- It is used not only when cooled cars, but also computers.
- Ethylene glycol or chemical compounds in composition applies, as a means for cleaning automotive brakes and mirrors.
- In small quantities present in the shoe processing cream.
- Ethylene glycol and medicine are used as an integral part of cryoprotectors for tissues and organs. That is, substances that are used for freezing.
- This is one of the components of the capacitors.
- The key property of ethylene glycol is the absorption of water, which is successfully used to prevent icing of fuel in aviation and the synthesis of methane hydrate in the pipelines that pass to the sea.
- In organic chemistry, it is used as a high-temperature solvent.
- Without it, the synthesis of chemical compounds does not pass.
- Where else is ethylene glycol? - Even in our time, explosives create explosives with his participation.
Over the past decades, there have been many applications for this dioxide alcohol, which, of course, is due to its properties. But in medicine, it is known not only as a useful and necessary product in everyday life, but also as a means, after contact with which a person can die.
So what is it ethylene glycol? - Useful chemical, without which the production of most organic compounds is done or a potent poison with a powerful poisoning effect? Let's find out how ethylene glycol per person can affect.
Effect of ethylene glycol on human body
This dioxidant alcohol is mainly included in the preparations for premises, cars and appliances. In its physical properties, it differs from the usual alcohol with an oil consistency and lack of smell, so it is difficult to confuse with ethanol or isopropanol, which are often used inside. Are there any poisoning of ethylene glycol in humans? - Yes, despite the obvious differences with other alcohols, they can be poisoned.
In what cases is poisoning?
- Ethylene glycol is one of the means of treating large rooms. During the application of detergents, his pair is inhaled, and in disruption of safety equipment, a small amount of compound can get into the mouth. Although it is not enough for poisoning.
- Glycol gets inside with constant work with him, for example, if a person works on the chemical production of products containing ethylene glycol.
- You can choose when accidentally use it inside.
- Since this chemical compound is used to handle machines, then in the risk group there are people who regularly encounter him on the debt of the service.
Ethylene glycol is toxic and refers to the substances of the third hazard class. After admission to the human body, it is very quickly absorbed in the stomach and the upper division of the small intestine. Not more than 30% is distinguished by the kidneys or in the form of salts. The rest of the same part enters the liver, where it is converted.
In the liver, it decomposes to the final products:
- glycolic acid;
- ant and oxalic acid;
- Glycolic aldehyde.
How does ethylene glycol affect the human body? All of these final decay products act on an acid-base equilibrium, which gradually leads to necrosis of cerebral cells and renal tissue. In the body develops acidosis or an increase in acidity. Mortal dose for a person is only 100-150 ml. But even the hit of a small amount of ethylene glycol will lead to the development of poisoning, although in a light degree.
Symptoms of poisoning
In the inflammatory process after eating ethylene glycly, not only the kidneys and the brain are involved. Alcohol and its final products affect all organ systems. The hidden period of poisoning ethylene glycol is on average equal to 12 hours, but it can shorten or lengthen depending on the amount of alcohol consumed.
What are the symptoms of poisoning?
- The first period (initial) manifests itself only a few hours, not more than 12, and is characterized by easy intoxication. A person is worried about insignificant weakness and inadvertent speech, but in general, well-being is normal. At this time, the ethylene glycol is indicated only by an unusual sweet odor emanating from man. In rare cases, it is concerned about nausea, periodic vomiting, abdominal pain.
- 12 hours after a period of imaginary well-being, dizziness arises, headaches, thirst and nausea.
- The symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning at this time include vomiting, strongest pain in the stomach, which resemble signs of acute abdomen, pain in the lower back and muscles.
- A little later, signs of damage to the nervous system are a little later: the excitation and loss of consciousness, numerous cramps appear, the body temperature increases.
- Ethylene glycol poisoning is also manifested by a violation of the work of the heart and vessels: the frequency of the beating increases, blood pressure is reduced.
- The operation of the respiratory system is disturbed: shortness of breath, superficial respiration and edema lungs are gradually appearing.
- Heavy patients are losing consciousness.
- Approximately the fifth day develops a violation in the work of the kidneys and liver. Due to renal failure, the lethal outcome is observed within one week.
- Death comes in the first days of acute poisoning due to the paralysis of the respiratory center, the edema of the lungs and due to cardiovascular failure.
Ethylene glycol's light poisoning is observed more often when inhaling his vapors of small concentration. It is manifested by minor symptoms: weakness, sliding, dizziness.
First aid for poisoning
Unfortunately, often the cause of late or late help becomes easy course of poisoning, chronic intoxication of couples of this alcohol or later appeal to the injured person to health workers. In this case, glycol decay products have already provided their damaging effect on the internal organs and cause irreparable damage to health.
Ethanol - antidote with ethylene glycol poisoning
What can be done on a pretty stage to help the victim? To do this, it is necessary to be confident in the use of this substance. If ethylene glycol has recently recently, it is necessary to immediately rinse the stomach and introduce a laxative. Activated coal will not have a pronounced effect.
Quickly help with ethylene glycol, maybe antidote - ethanol. In this case, it is used inside its 30% solution or 5% introduced intravenously. And also an antidote use calcium chloride or gluconate 10% solution intravenously or inside.
Not all at hand can be the necessary medicines to provide emergency measures. In this case, emergency assistance in the poisoning of the ethylene glycol is to be introduced through a probe or the mouth of ordinary vodka.
If a person is unconscious - it needs to be putting the side and give access to oxygen - open a window, untie the tie and free from tightening clothes.
Until the start of active actions, it is necessary to call an ambulance brigade, since hospitalization will need the victim.
In poisoning, ethylene glycol in children need to act immediately and as soon as possible to deliver the affected baby to the nearest hospital!
Treatment of hospital poisoning
After hospitalization, a patient is a course of intensive therapy. If the victim was not given antidote by a team of ambulance, then upon arrival in the hospital he was administered immediately.
The further treatment is to use symptomatic preparations for the correction of the work of vital organs and systems.
- When the ethylene glycol is poisoning, the victim provides physical peace, oxygen access.
- Vitamins of group B and C, ATP (adenosine trifosphoric acid) are prescribed.
- If necessary, prednisone is introduced.
- In case of poisoning, ethylene glycol is prescribed a large amount of folic acid to associate the decomposition of this dioxide alcohol.
- Salt solutions are introduced.
Prevention of poisoning
What should be the prevention of ethylene glycol poisoning?
- When working with chemicals containing ethylene glycol, it is necessary to use individual means of protection.
- Do not drink suspicious liquids.
- Store all chemicals to protect and process the machine, as well as room cleaning.
Ethylene glycol - how dangerous is this connection? It is impossible to underestimate its negative impact on the human body. The symptoms of poisoning, if alcohol gets inside, develop practically lightning, and death can come, just 5 days later. Ethylene glycol poisoning is very easy to warn and cure, if it is known that a person drank. Otherwise, therapy is delayed for a long time.
Glycerin and ethylene glycol ( Ethylene Glycol) are the most famous chemicals that apply in various fields of activity. Their study has shown several centuries ago that there are no similar substances. Multiatomic alcohols are used in chemical synthesis, and in industry industries, and in the spheres of human activity.
However, these substances have negative qualities. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully disassemble the composition of ethylene glycol, its formula and the degree of danger to humans.
What is ethylene glycol
By definition of ethylene glycol (glycol, 1,2-dioxethane, ethandiol-1,2) is an oxygen-containing organic compound, ductomic alcohol, the simplest representative of polyhydric alcohols. If the substance is cleaned, it is a transparent colorless liquid of an oily consistency.
Initially, ethylene glycol was used during the First World War as Glycerin. However, over time, changed its direction. It began to be used in various spheres of the chemical industry.
Formula and class of substance
Chemical glycol formula - C2H6O2, rational - C2H4 (OH) 2, Structural - HO-CH2-CH2-OH . The molecule is based on the unintended skeleton of ethylene, which consists of two carbon atoms. Two hydroxyl groups joined free valence places.
Ethylene glycol has several titles that are often found in the composition of chemical production products:
The molecule has the similarity of the trans-configuration in the placement of hydroxyl groups. This arrangement corresponds to the remote location of hydrogens, which gives the maximum stability of the system.
How to get
Mass obtaining 1.2-Ethadiol began in the thirties of the last century. First received only one method, then new appeared. Thus, glycol can be obtained in several ways, but some of them have become part of the story, while others have surpassed their quality.
Initially, 1,2-dioxide was obtained from dibromercius. The double bond ethylene is broken, and free valence is engaged in halogens - the initial substance in this reaction. The formation of an intermediate compound is possible due to the substitution of acetate groups, which in hydrolysis are converted into alcohol.
A new method has appeared with improving technology - obtaining ethylene glycol with direct hydrolysis of any ethanols and Ethylene which are substituted by two halogens of the neighboring carbon atoms. With the help of various aqueous solutions, carbonates of metals, water and lead dioxide, the reaction begins, which is possible only at high temperatures and pressure. Side substances - Diethylene glycol and triethylene glycol.
The following method allowed to obtain 1,2-dioxidan from Ether ethylene chlorohydrin by its hydrolysis by coal salts. At 170 degrees, the yield of the target product reached 90%. However, there was a significant drawback - the glycol must be extracted from salt solution. Scientists solved this problem. They broke the process into two stages, while leaving the same source.
The hydrolysis of ethylene glycol acetates has become a separate way, when it turned out to produce the initial reagent by oxidizing ethylene in acetic acid oxygen.
1,2-dioxetan does not smell, however, has a sweet taste. Refer to K. Moderately toxic flammable substances. Easily connects with water. This is used in industry, since the freezing temperature of such substances is very low.
In the past century, it became known that ethylene glycol had unique properties.
- The ignition temperature is from +112 ° C to +124 ° C;
- self-splashing can when heated to +380 ˚С;
- Clean ethylene glycol freezes at -12 ˚С;
- a water-based solution can freeze at temperatures below -65 ° C, and at a lower value, the formation of ice crystals is begins;
- The boiling point of the pure fluid is achieved at +121 ° C;
- Density - 11.114 g / cm³.
Such characteristics make it possible to use 1,2-dioxidan in various spheres of production.
The substance has several names, but they all mean the same thing. Actually, the chemical properties of them are the same. If a The mass fraction of the substance reaches 99.8%, then it is the highest grade.
List of chemical properties:
- molar weight - 62,068 g / mol;
- Optical refraction coefficient - 1.4318;
- dissociation constant of acid - 15.1 ± 0.1;
- Moderately toxic.
1.2-etandiol belong to the third hazard group, therefore Maximum permissible concentrations in the atmosphere according to GOST may be no more than 5 milligrams / m³.
Ethylene glycol found his calling in many industries. An indispensable substance is in the automotive industry. Its unique properties allow you to create high-quality liquids.
Can regenerate the original carbonyl connection in the presence of water and acid:
- As a component of the counter-crystallization fluid "and".
- As a cryoprotector.
- To absorb water, preventing the formation of methane hydrate, which scores pipelines for gas extraction in the open sea. In ground stations it is regenerated by draining and removing salts.
- Ethylene glycol is the initial raw material for the production of nitroglycol explosive.
1,3-dioxolanes can be obtained in the reaction of ethylene glycol with carbonyl compounds in the presence of trimethylchlorosilane. Such compounds are resistant to the action of nucleophiles and bases.
Thanks to its cheapness, ethylene glycol has been widely used in the technique.
It can be used:
- as a component of brake fluids and automotive antifreezes;
- as a heat carrier with a content of no more than 50% in heating systems;
- as a coolant in the form of a solution in cars and systems of liquid cooling of computers;
- in the production of polyurethane, cellophane and a number of other polymers;
- as a solvent of coloring substances;
- as a high-temperature solvent.
- To protect the carbonyl group by obtaining 1,3-dioxolane.
The most famous direction is the component of automotive antifreeze. This industry is 60% of its consumption. Such mixtures may not freeze at low temperatures, as well as corrosive stable.
In other industries
In addition, 1,2-dioxide is indispensable in other industries.
1.2-etandiol also applies:
- in the production of capacitors;
- in the production of 1,4-dioxane, propylene glycol;
- as a heat carrier in chiller-funk systems;
- as a component of a shoe cream;
- in the composition for washing the glasses together with isopropyl alcohol;
- with cryopreservation of biological objects as a cryoprotector;
- In the production of polyethylene terephthalate, plastic.
And although 1,2-dioxetan is used in other industries, their percentage of application is rather small.
Harm for man
However, 1.2-Ethadiool has its own minuses. Rubber or inaccurate use can lead to tragic consequences.
The hazard class of the substance
Ethylene glycol danger class - The third group, that is, its contact with the environment should be as small as possible. If 1.2-Ethadiool enters the human body, irreversible negative phenomena may develop in it. With one-time consumption, 100 and more milliliters comes fatal outcome.
The pairs of this substance are less toxic, but systematic inhalation can lead to death. If a person is poisoned by Glycol, he should take a drug that contains 4-methylpirazole.
Symptoms of poisoning
All organ systems are involved in the inflammatory process. The hidden period of poisoning ethylene glycol is usually equal to 12 hours, but the dates may vary depending on the amount of consumed alcohol.
Symptoms of poisoning:
- The first period manifests itself only a few hours, but not more than 12. It is characterized by light intoxication. There is insignificant weakness and inexpressible speech, but in general, well-being is normal. In rare cases, it is concerned about nausea, periodic vomiting and abdominal pain. From the poisoned person comes with a sweet smell.
- 12 hours after poisoning, dizziness and headaches, thirst and nausea occurs. There is vomiting, strongest pain in the stomach, pain in the lower back and muscles.
- A little later there are signs of damage to the nervous system: the excitation and loss of consciousness, numerous convulsions, the body temperature rises. Ethylene glycol poisoning is manifested by a violation of the work of the heart and blood vessels: the frequency of beating increases, blood pressure is reduced.
- The operation of the respiratory system is disturbed: shortness of breath, superficial respiration and lung edema appear. Heavy patients lose consciousness.
- Approximately the fifth day develops a violation in the work of the liver and kidneys. Because of renal failure, death is possible for one week.
- If acute poisoning happened, then death occurs due to the paralysis of the respiratory center and the edema of the lungs.
Easy poisoning is possible when inhalation of 1.2-ethadiola vapor. Symptoms are light nausea, weakness.
Precautions when working with ethylene glycol
Ethylene glycol is a combustible substance. Temperature limits of ignition vapor in the air begin 112 and ends 124 ° C. The limits of the ignition of vapors in the air from the lower to the upper - 3.8-6.4% of the volume.
The fatal dose for one-time oral use is 100-300 ml of ethylene glycol. It has a relatively low volatility at normal temperature. Danger represents fogs, however, when they are inhaled about danger, irritation and cough will signal. ПRecovery, containing ethanol or 4-methylpirazole should be taken.
Video on obtaining a substance
In the next video will tell about the receipt of glycol.